Sociology and its Development

Sociology is one of the most interesting subjects in the planet. One can easily understand the social life by understanding Sociology. A French philosopher Auguste Comte invented the term Sociology. That’s why he is known as the father of Sociology. The term Sociology is the combination of two different words, one “Socius” from Latin word which means associate or companion; the other word is taken from the Greek word “Logus” which means the scientific study about something. Thus, Sociology is defined as the study in which the human association is being studied scientifically on the basis of theories. It is believed that Sociology is the youngest of the social sciences.


Definition of Sociology


There are various definitions given by different writers to define the Sociology. For example few writers think that Sociology is the scientific study about the society. While the others believe that Sociology is the science through which the society can be studied with the help of social interaction. Similarly some writers argue that Sociology is the web cam of the society. One gets clear idea about the definition of Sociology after analyzing the ideas of different writers. Sociology is the study in which the society of human beings can be studied through scientific method and in an organized manner. Still a controversy is going on whether Sociology is a science or general subject. For science, the elements and laboratory are required but Sociology does not have any laboratory or elements. However, many Sociologists claimed that society is the laboratory and the individuals are the elements for Sociology and a Sociologist conducts variety of experiments from the society.


Development of Sociology


Auguste Comte was the pioneer of Sociology who promoted the Sociology in his “Positive Philosophy” which was published in 1838. Later on English philosopher Herbert Spencer contributed in the filed of Sociology and published his book “Principles of Sociology” in the year 1876. After Comte and Spencer, the famous writers and philosophers carried the work of Sociology and contributed greatly in this field. The work of Comte and Spencer was followed by the people like Lester F. Ward, Emile Durkheim, Karl Marx and C.H Cooley etc. The teaching of Sociology started in the universities in 1890s. Slowly and gradually Sociology started to occupy the space in every walk of life. Later on various theories and methods of Sociology were given by popular philosophers through Sociology became one of the most significant subjects in every country.


Field of Sociology


It is a scientific subject which focuses on the group life of human beings and their collective behavior. A Sociologist always concentrates on customs, traditions and values of society. Sociology covers topics like collective behavior, demography, deviant behavior, social change, social psychology and urban Sociology. Similarly, crime and delinquency, law and society, Sociology of religion and human resource development are some of the important subjects of Sociology. All the subject have more or less relationships with each other., but Sociology is one which has a great relationship with other subjects like mass communication, psychology, political science, criminology and Anthropology etc.


Challenge in the Field of Sociology


An important challenge in the field of Sociology is the changing behavior of individuals, patterns of society, norms, rules and regulations. The theories which were given hundred years ago can be useless today because of variation in the human nature. The common people do not accept the theories of Sociology and factual arguments of Sociologist. The people use to respect their stereotypical approach. There was a time when people thought that the death under green tree while sleeping at night is caused by supernatural power. They were unaware about the biological factors. As soon as the biology developed, it brought a clear idea that the act of sleeping under a tree at night is harmful because of the release of carbon dioxide. But people do not yet agree with the ideas of Sociologist because of their superstitious beliefs. While studying Sociology, one may get hurt from the information provided by the Sociologists.


Scope of Sociology


There is a great scope of Sociology in the modern world. A Sociologist can engage himself in the work like a teacher, social researcher, social worker, policy consultant, technician, and as civil officer. There are variety of jobs and departments available where a Sociologist can explore his/her talents and contributes in the development of organization and society. Besides these jobs a Sociologist spends a safe and sound life with the help of the knowledge of Sociology. Sociology develops the personal life of a man and also teaches a person how to be a good member of the society. So, Sociology has great importance and scope for the individuals of society.


Importance of Social Research


Social research is a process or a method of enquiring something to find out the facts and figures. Without social research, it would have been difficult for the Sociologist to come with the accurate information. Every problem occurs in society because of its root causes. To find out the root causes of a particular problem, it is necessary for social scientist to go through the methods of social research. Defining the problem, reviewing of literature, formulation of hypothesis, collection of data, analyzing the data and drawing the conclusion are necessary steps and methods of social research. The social research is not only important for present day but it also helps in researching about the problems in the future. One comes with the solid solution about the problems with the help of social research.




Sociology is the science of society which is one of the most interesting subjects. Auguste Comte is the father of Sociology and contributed largely in the field of Sociology. After Auguste Comte, the English Philosopher Herbert Spencer, F. Ward, Emile Durkheim, Karl Marx and C.H Cooley carried on the work of Sociology. On one hand, Sociology is developing day by day whereas on the other hand it is facing various problems because of the different mind set of the people. The people do not easily accept the theories of Sociology because of lack of knowledge. A Sociologist explores the reality or fact of phenomena with the help of methods of social research. Hence social research is an important method not only in the field of Sociology but also in other fields of life.

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