The word management is often used in several different ways. For example it can refer to the people indulged in providing guidance and direction to the organization or it may refer to the method by which organizational goals are obtained. But actually the word management refers to the process by which organizational goals are achieved by working with and through people by efficiently using limited resources.
What are the functions of Management?
Following are the four important functions of management.
Planning is the essence of human working because no aspect of our lives can function without some kind of planning. Similar is the case of an organization which requires a comprehensive planning for success and prosperity. Planning involves setting goals and deciding how best to achieve them. Therefore specific strategies are established to achieve those goals and develop new plans to integrate and coordinate activities.The purpose of planning is to make the organization successful in near future as well as in the distant future.
Organizing is a management function which refers to the process of assigning tasks to various individuals or groups within the organization. Organizing function helps to answer the questions such as what tasks need to be done, who will perform these tasks and what process will be used to group these tasks etc. So basically organizing provides a mechanism to put plans into action which ultimately contributes to the over all success of the organization.
Leading refers to process of guiding the activities of organizational members in appropriate directions in order to reach the goals of an organization. This function is also commonly known as motivating, influencing, directing, or actuating. The purpose of leading is to increase the overall productivity of an organization. Leading includes communicating with others, motivating organizational members and encouraging necessary levels of change and motivation.
Another important function of management is controlling which aimed at regulating organizational activities so that the actual performance could be compared with the previously set goals. Therefore controlling function includes the monitoring of actual performance, comparing actual performance to the expected organizational standards and goals and taking appropriate actions if necessary. Controlling is an ongoing process which starts from information gathering, making comparisons on the basis of this information and then finding new ways to improve the production.
What are Skills of management?
According to Katz, there are three important types of management skills which are necessary for the successful management performance. These skills are given and explain below.
Technical skills refer to the ability to apply specialized knowledge and expertise to work related techniques. Examples of these skills are manufacturing, engineering, computers, accounting etc. such type of skills are necessary at lower level of management because managers at this level deals directly with the working employees of an organization.
Human skills refer to the ability to work well with other people and build cooperation within the team being led. Such type of skills is important at all level of management because managers with effective human skills are able to effectively communicate with others in order to motivate them for the purpose of achieving organizational goals.
Skills related to the ability to visualize the organization as a whole, and understand how the organization fits into the wider context of the industry. Such type of skills is very important at upper level of organization because it helps the top level managers to guide the organization as whole. A manger with conceptual skills understands various functions of organization e.g. he knows how changes in one part of organization affect the rest of organization.