The expression of a complete proposition by smallest grammatical unit is known as clause. Basically, a clause contains both predicate and subject. There could be one or more than one clauses in the sentence. A sentence that consists of just one clause is known as a simple sentence. For example: I went New York. She liked Mexico. There are various types of clause which are explained below:

Coordinate Clauses

A sentence which consists of 2 clauses and joined by conjunctions such as: or, and, etc. These clauses are known as coordinate clauses and sentence with these clauses is called compound sentence.  
For example: Bobby went for fishing and Shan liked cow.

Subordinate Clauses

Subordinate clauses have a verb and a subject, but do not make any sentence by themselves. These clauses usually start with words such as: because, if, who, when, even, unless, while, etc. Usage of these words depends on the subordinate and main clause.
For example: Unless George completes his assignment (subordinate clause), he will have to stay (main clause)

Adverbial Clause of Concession

A subordinate clause that tells you something surprising connected with the main clause is called adverbial clause of concession or contrast.
For example: He has decided to retire, although he is only 55.

Adverbial Clause of Time

Adverbial clause of time is also a subordinate clause that tells about time of action in the main clause. This type of clause starts with before, since, while, etc. 
For example: Prepare yourself before exams.

Adverbial Clause of Reason

A subordinate clause that gives the reason for the action in the main clause is known as adverbial clause of reason.
For example: John was absent, because he was ill.

Adverbial Clause of Purpose

A subordinate clause that tells the purpose of the action in the main clause is known as adverbial clause of purpose. 
For example: They are working hard, so that they will do well in the exam.

Conditional Clauses

A subordinate clause beginning with if or unless is known as conditional clause. These clauses say what the conditions or circumstances are for something to happen.
For example: Buy some more milk, if there is none in the fridge.

Adverbial Clause of Result

A subordinate clause that tells the result of the action in the main clause is known as adverbial clause of the result.
For example: It was so hot, that the cheese melted.

Relative Clause

A Relative clause is a clause that describes a person or thing in the main clause is known as relative clause.
For example: She dislikes people who are rude.

Adverbial Clause of Place

It is a subordinate clause where the action in the main clause is known as adverbial clause of place.
For example: Stay where you are!

Adverbial Clause of Manner

A clause that tells the way the action in main clause happen is known as adverbial clause of the manner. Some of the important conjunctions used in this clause are: as, like, the way.
For example: They never informed me about the problem the way I wanted them to inform.

More Conditional Clause

There are some conditional clauses that talk about unreal or imagined situations.
For example: We could fly in the air, if we had wings like birds.

Noun Clause

A noun clause is a clause that tells about what someone says, thinks are asks. It is also known as complement clause.
For example: It was announced that Shan had won.

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