Plagiarism is a special type of bribery in which the recognition for others’ work is taken. This bribe is done by copying others’ work and giving ones own name. Using any single sentence, paragraph, complete report from any source is considered as plagiarism except in few special cases. Since there is so much research going on therefore it becomes difficult to catch the plagiarism. It is therefore the moral and ethical obligation of every researcher to avoid the plagiarism. This is an edge of technology which provides the greater sources of information. Plagiarism is increasing due to the greater and easy availability of information or material online. In this dynamic changing environment every one wants the quicker information and desire time security on the work magnitude for doing the certain assignment. Plagiarism is also increasing due to given copyrights, non-restrictive atmosphere and lack of knowledge about the matter. There are many types of plagiarism but some most significance types are described below:
This is the type of plagiarism in which researcher simply copies the material without making any alteration or giving credit to the original author. This is the easiest type of plagiarism because the researcher does not put extra effort on the copied material. In most cases it is seen that students or researchers come up with the argument that they have not copied the material from one source but collected the material from various sources. Again this is plagiarism because it does not matter whether the material is copied from one source or several sources.
Nominal plagiarism is also an important type of plagiarism which is widely used by the researchers. In this type of plagiarism researchers just change the actual content with alternate words. There are various software for checking the plagiarism therefore researchers simply replace the important words in a sentence by using synonyms. In this way, software does not detect the plagiarized work. But now days there are some software (e.g. Viper) which can detect even the 4 consecutive words in a paragraph.
Idea plagiarism is a special type of plagiarism in which the researchers do not copy the original content but they steal the original ideas. If any person repeats the creative idea or original work without giving the references then it would be considered as idea plagiarism. Here, it is important to note that the idea must be unique; if the idea is common fact then there is no need to cite the references.
Sentence Rearrangement Plagiarism
In rearrangement plagiarism, the researcher only changes the composition of sentence by rearranging the order of clauses in a sentence or a paragraph to hide the plagiarism. By simply changing the contents of a published work does not guarantee the avoidance of plagiarism. The researchers have to analyze different studies on the research topic and based on the analysis and understanding he/she should come up with his/her explanation of the problem.
If any researcher copies the explanation or course of reasoning of any other author then it is known as style plagiarism. Whether the researcher follows a basis article paragraph-by-paragraph or even sentence-by-sentence would be considered as plagiarism. In this type of plagiarism, author uses the different words but the same pattern of explanation and idea order.
The work of any other author represented with additional information in the content and just altering the pattern of the content is known as substantial plagiarism. In substantial plagiarism, the researcher only adds some extra information to the original work and presented the work as own.
If a person captures a creative metaphor of the author without giving the reference of the author then it would be considered as metaphor plagiarism. Metaphors are used to make an idea clearer or make content attractive and touchy. It is a significant part of an author’s unique style. If anyone cannot create his/her own metaphor to describe any considerable thought then he/she can use the metaphor of original author by giving proper references.